Growing Guide
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Annual Flower

Viola x wittrockiana
Violaceae Family

One of the earliest annual flowers to bloom in spring, Pansies sport brightly colored, face-like flowers in combinations of red, yellow, orange, blue, purple, pink, or white. They prefer cool weather, and often die back and need to be removed when hot weather arrives.

Site Characteristics
  • full sun
  • part shade

Soil conditions:

  • requires well-drained soil
Prefers rich, moist but well-drained soil.
Plant Traits

Lifecycle: annual

Ease-of-care: moderately difficult

Height: 0.5 to 0.75 feet

Spread: 0.75 to 1 feet

Bloom time:

  • early spring
  • mid-spring
  • late spring

Often continues to flower into the summer if weather stays cool.

Flower color:

  • red
  • orange
  • yellow
  • blue
  • violet
  • white
  • pink

Flowers in single colors, bicolors, and tricolors of these shades. Traditional varieties have a dark-colored patch in the middle of the flower, resembling a face.

Foliage color:

  • medium green
  • dark green

Foliage texture: medium


  • cushion, mound or clump
  • spreading mass

Shape in flower: same as above

Special Considerations
  • frost
Special characteristics:
  • non-aggressive
  • non-invasive
  • not native to North America - Hybrids of plants native to Europe.
Special uses:
  • edible flowers - Used as decorations and garnishes.
Growing Information
How to plant:

Propagate by seed - Start seeds indoors 10 to 12 weeks before the last spring frost. Lightly cover the seeds with soil, as they need light to germinate. After sowing, slightly moisten the potting mix and place the seed tray in the refrigerator for 2 weeks, then move to heated area.

Germination temperature: 65 F to 70 F

Days to emergence: 14 to 21

Maintenance and care:
Deadhead to prolong bloom. Pinch to keep bushy. Keep soil moist but not soggy. Remove plants when they die back from summer heat.

More growing information: How to Grow Annuals

Spider mites
Parasitic nematodes
Powdery mildew
Downy mildew
Fungal leaf spot
‘Black Moon’ deep black flowers on 6 to 8” tall plants.

‘Ultima Silhouette’ F-1 hybrid: heat tolerant pastel flowers in shades of white, pink, and purple.

‘Bingo’ Series: 3 ½” wide blooms on compact plants. Flowers in shades of yellow, pink, purple, white, blue, and red.

‘Imperial’ F-1 hybrids: “antique” flowers in shades of yellow, pink, purple, white, and blue.

‘Delta’ Series: early flowering 7” tall plants with large (3 ½” wide) flowers in shades of pink, white, blue, yellow, purple and red.

‘Universal Plus’ Series: dwarf plants with large (3” wide) flowers in shades of red, pink, yellow, purple, blue and white.

‘Happy Face’ Series: heat-tolerant plants with large (2 ½ to 3” wide) blooms in yellow, white, red, pink, purple and blue.

‘Super Majestic Giant’ Series: early-blooming plants with very large (4” wide) flowers in pink, purple, white, yellow, blue and red.